冰淇淋和披薩不能多吃!這些超加工食品吃多了容易早逝

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發布日期:2019-05-31  瀏覽次數:74
核心提示冰淇淋、蛋糕、巧克力、披薩……這些美味食物不但會讓你發胖,還會增加你的早逝風險,因為它們都是超加工食品。研究發現,愛吃超加工食品的人患心臟病和癌癥的風

冰淇淋、蛋糕、巧克力、披薩……這些美味食物不但會讓你發胖,還會增加你的早逝風險,因為它們都是超加工食品。研究發現,愛吃超加工食品的人患心臟病和癌癥的風險更大,也更容易早逝。


Photo by Nicolás Perondi on Unsplash

Ultra-processed foods - such as chicken nuggets, ice cream and breakfast cereals - have been linked to early death and poor health, scientists say.

科學家指出,雞塊、冰淇淋、早餐麥片等超加工食品與早逝和健康狀況不良有關。

Researchers in France and Spain say the amount of such food being eaten has soared.

法國和西班牙的研究人員稱,超加工食品的攝入量在近年大增。

What are ultra-processed foods? 什么是“超加工食品”?

The term comes from a way of classifying food by how much industrial processing it has been through.

這個術語源自一種按照工業加工程度對食品進行分類的方式。

The lowest category is "unprocessed or minimally processed foods", which include: fruit, vegetables, milk, meat, legumes, grains such as rice, eggs.

第一類是“沒有經過加工或加工程度最小的食品”,包括水果、蔬菜、牛奶、肉、豆類、大米等谷物和雞蛋。

Photo by Rebekah Howell on Unsplash

"Processed foods" have been altered to make them last longer or taste better - generally using salt, oil, sugar or fermentation.

加工食品是經過處理使其保質期更長或味道更佳的食品,通常加入鹽、油、糖或采用發酵的方式。

This category includes: cheese, bacon, home-made bread, tinned fruit and vegetables, smoked fish, beer.

加工食品包括:奶酪、熏豬肉、自制的面包、罐頭水果和蔬菜、熏魚、啤酒。

Photo by Alexander Maasch on Unsplash

Then come "ultra-processed foods", which have been through more substantial industrial processing and often have long ingredient lists on the packet, including added preservatives, sweeteners or color enhancers.

“超加工食品”則是經過更深度的工業加工的食品,通常包裝上有長長的一列食品成分,包括防腐劑、甜味劑或色素。

Prof Maira Bes-Rastrollo, from the University of Navarra, told BBC News: "It is said that if a product contains more than five ingredients, it is probably ultra-processed."

西班牙那瓦拉公立大學的邁拉·貝斯-拉斯特羅略教授告訴BBC新聞說:“據稱,如果一種產品含有五種以上的配料,那么這種產品很可能就屬于超加工食品。”

Examples include: processed meat such as sausages and hamburgers, breakfast cereals or cereal bars, instant soups, sugary fizzy drinks, chicken nuggets, cake, chocolate, ice cream, mass-produced bread, many "ready to heat" meals such as pies and pizza, meal-replacement shakes.

超加工食品的例子有:香腸和漢堡等加工肉類、早餐麥片、谷物棒、速食湯、含糖氣泡飲料、雞塊、蛋糕、巧克力、冰淇淋、量產面包、加熱就能吃的餡餅和披薩等方便食品、代餐奶昔。

mass-produced: adj. 大量生產的,大批生產的

Photo by ian dooley on Unsplash

The first study, by the University of Navarra, in Spain, followed 19,899 people for a decade and assessed their diet every other year.

西班牙那瓦拉公立大學開展的第一項研究在十年內跟蹤調查了19899人,每隔一年對他們的膳食進行評估。

There were 335 deaths during the study.

在研究期間有335人去世。

But for every 10 deaths among those eating the least ultra-processed food, there were 16 deaths among those eating the most (more than four portions a day).

研究發現,吃超加工食品最少的人和吃超加工食品最多(一天超過4份)的人死亡的比例是10比16。

The second study, by the University of Paris, followed 105,159 people for five years and assessed their diet twice a year.

巴黎大學開展的第二項研究在五年內跟蹤調查了105159人,每年對他們的膳食進行兩次評估。

It showed those eating more ultra-processed food had worse heart health.

這項研究顯示,吃更多超加工食品的人,心臟更不健康。

Rates of cardiovascular disease were 277 per 100,000 people per year among those eating the most ultra-processed food, compared with 242 per 100,000 among those eating the least.

超加工食品吃得最多的人每年患心血管疾病的幾率是10萬分之277,而超加工食品吃得最少的人每年患心血管疾病的幾率是10萬分之242。

Dr Mathilde Touvier, from the University of Paris, told BBC News: "[The] evidence is accumulating.

巴黎大學的瑪蒂爾德·圖維耶博士告訴BBC新聞說:“這樣的證據在不斷累積。”

"Increasing numbers of independent studies observe associations between ultra-processed foods and adverse health effects."

“越來越多的獨立調查觀察到超加工食品和對健康的負面影響之間的關聯。”

Last year, a link was made with an increased risk of cancer.

去年有研究指出,超加工食品和癌癥風險增加有關。

Prof Bes-Rastrollo, from the University of Navarra, told BBC News she was "very certain" they were bad for health.

那瓦拉大學的貝斯-拉斯特羅略教授告訴BBC新聞說,她“非常肯定”超加工食品對身體是有害的。

The first trial of ultra-processed foods showed they led people to eat more and put on weight.

對超加工食品的初次試驗顯示,超加工食品會引誘人們吃得更多并體重會增加。

Researchers at the US National Institutes of Health monitored every morsel of food that volunteers ate for a month.

美國國立衛生研究院的研究人員花了一個月時間來監控志愿者吃的每一口食物。

And when given ultra-processed food, they ate 500 calories a day more than when they were given unprocessed meals.

當研究人員給志愿者吃超加工食品時,相比起吃未加工食品,志愿者每日多攝入了500卡路里。

The studies were published in the British Medical Journal.

這些研究發表在《英國醫學雜志》上。

英文來源:BBC

 

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